Cell division is the process in which a parent cell divides, giving rise to two or more daughter cells. It is an essential biological process in many organisms. It is the means used by multicellular organisms in order to grow, replenish (repair), and reproduce.
Importance of cell division for a living cell.
cell division is central to organism growth, reproduction and tissue repair.
1) Cell Reproduction.
Production of an offspring from a parent cell or a combination of parent cell.
i. Asexual reproduction.
· One parent, offspring are identical genetic copies.
· Uses the process of cell division.
ii. Sexual reproduction.
· Two parental cells containing half the genetic information (gamete) join to form an offspring new cell having a whole set of genetic information (zygote)
· This type of reproduction is not considered cell division (mitosis) but rather meiosis.
2) Cell growth.
Cell growth usually refers to cell proliferation, the increase in cell numbers that occurs through repeated cell division. Cell growth can also refer to the enlargement of cell volume, which can take place in the absence of cell division.
i. Normal replacement
· Cells have limited lifespan.
· Cell death by apoptosis.
· Cells get injured and need to heal.
· Cell death by necrosis.
4)Unicellular organism divides and forms duplicate offspring.
5)Produce progeny from some multi cellular organisms.
E.g.- plant that grow from cuttings.
6)It is distributes the identical genetic material to daughter cell.
7)Sexually reproducing organisms develop from a single cell.
8)Cell divisions involves in repairing of cells.
E.g.- born narrow makes the new blood cells.
9)Cell renewal and repair.
10) With the cell division growth occur through an increase in volume and enlargement of the outer membrane.
11)The replacement of dead cells is also an important of cell division.
i. Growth of Organisms
ii. Maintenance of Chromosome Number
iii. Maintenance of Nucleon-cytoplasmic Ratio (NC ratio)
v. Reproduction in Unicellular organisms
vi. Healing and regeneration
vii. Genetic variations
viii. Formation of gamete by meiosis.